ICCROM Built Heritage Forum at Tongji: Background Information on ICCROM

Built Heritage: A Cultural Motivator for Urban and Rural Development

In terms of ICCROM, the international organisation is more focused on training in the heritage sector. In terms of size, the order would be UNESCO > ICOMOS > ICCROM. In terms of operations, UNESCO takes charge of listing, ICOMOS takes charge of recommendations and identification and ICCROM in terms of training and education of people in practice. ICOMOS has been referred by people in the field (e.g. Matthias) as a ‘black box’, talking about its dire need to be more transparent and become less of a club and more of an inclusive organisation. UNESCO’s top-down approach of Charters and documents have also been commented on as being not effective on the ground, or even not been cared about. The ICCROM is, on the other hand, a much less known branch in built heritage. However, it is associated with WHITRAP, a training arm of UNESCO and was started in Suzhou, as an initiative by the Chinese government to bring people together since 2004.


Linked Hybrid

Went to Steven Holl’s Linked Hybrid, which turned out to be much shorter than the impression that I got from the pictures, perhaps because the buildings beside it were at a Chinese scale of 50 stories. The architecture was unsurprisingly like the photos. I almost wished that there were more surprises to discover, even though the cinema was rather pleasant to find, especially when this building did not scream ‘look at me’ like the other ones. Unfortunately, the linked hybrid does not work as a public square as the entrances are heavily guarded. The combination of residential blocks surrounding public-serving restaurants and a stand-alone cinema was a wild stab by an American architect trying to create publicness in a residential community. But how can you prevent gated communities when the definition of ‘good’ is exclusivity? On the other hand, however, maybe it is a look at what the definition of ‘public space’ is. People who lived in the linked hybrid obviously enjoyed the courtyards and water features. There were mums with babies hanging out on the bridges and couples taking strolls. That use of space is public to its residents, a feature that is common in almost all gated communities. There is a need for public space close to home, or in other words, public spaces that have their basis in residential quarters. Why would other people use these public spaces other than for commerial/entertainment uses? So the question becomes, why does the gated communities need to be public to everybody?

New Life for Historic Cities

  • Tangible and intangible heritage are sources of social cohesion, factors of diversity and drivers of creativity, innovation and urban regeneration – we must do more to
    harness this power.’ – Irina Bokova, Director-General of UNESCO at the World Urban Forum (Naples, 2012)
  • Urban heritage constitutes a key resource in enhancing the livability of urban areas. It fosters economic development and social cohesion in a changing global environment. This booklet calls to involve more people in preservation efforts, raise levels of awareness, and seek innovative schemes. By actively engaging public, private and civic sectors the city, historic and contemporary, can be better preserved and celebrated.
  • Urban heritage is of vital importance for our cities – now and in the future. Tangible
    and intangible urban heritage are sources of social cohesion, factors of diversity and drivers of creativity, innovation and urban regeneration.
  • The key to understanding and managing any historic urban environment is the recognition that the city is not a static monument or group of buildings, but subject to dynamic forces in the economic, social and cultural spheres that shaped it and keep shaping it. This booklet advocates that a historic context and new development can interact and mutually reinforce their role and meaning.
  • UNESCO’s approach to managing historic urban landscapes is holistic; it integrates
    the goals of urban heritage conservation and those of social and economic development. This method sees urban heritage as a social, cultural and economic asset for the development of cities.
  • The recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape was adopted on 10 November 2011 by UNESCO’s General Conference.
  • The historic urban landscape approach moves beyond the preservation of the physical environment, and focuses on the entire human environment with all of its
    tangible and intangible qualities. It seeks to increase the sustainability of planning and design interventions by taking into account the existing built environment, intangible heritage, cultural diversity, socio-economic and environmental factors along with local community values.
  • The historic urban landscape approach sees and interprets the city as a continuum in time and space. Countless population groups have left their mark, and continue to do so today.
  • As an approach, it considers cultural diversity and creativity as key assets for human,
    social and economic development. It is an alternative method to cutting the city up
    through ‘zoning’ into separate conservation areas, which thereby become ghettos of
    historic preservation. To these ends, UNESCO works with cities to support the integration of environmental, social and cultural concerns into the planning, design and implementation of urban development.
  • In many cities this approach has had very positive and encouraging results. For each
    local situation a balance is reached between preservation and protection of urban heritage, economic development, functionality and livability of a city. Thus the needs of current inhabitants are responded to while sustainably enhancing the city’s natural and cultural resources for future generations.
  • The different approaches – heritage, economic, environmental and sociocultural –
    do not conflict; they are complementary and their long-term success is dependent on them being linked together.
  • The historic urban landscape is the result of the layering and intertwining of cultural and natural values over time. Beyond the notion of ‘historic centre,’ it includes the broader urban context and its geographical setting.
  • How can a city become a stable ecosystem?
  • How can action and planning law work together in order to achieve climate-resilience for cities?
  • Can urban conservation serve the needs of local communities, including the poor and the marginalized?
  • How can future generations be engaged in maintaining the continuation of urban life?
  • Which new financial tools are needed for the management of the historic urban landscape?
  • Can we sustain and enhance the identity of cities as a way to brand them?
  • How can urban conservation promote new forms of productivity and socioeconomic development?
  • If dealt with properly, urban heritage will act as a catalyst for socio-economic development through tourism, commercial use, and higher land and property values – thereby providing the revenues out of which to pay for maintenance, restoration and rehabilitation.
  • Urban heritage areas generate much higher returns than areas devoid of any culturalhistoric significance. Proximity to world-class monuments and sites usually draws high-end service-sector businesses and residents, who are willing to pay more for locations with prestige and status. This is reflected in land and property values.
  • The 250-plus historic cities that have been included in the World Heritage List deliver very significant socio-economic benefits at the local and national levels – not only through tourism and related goods and services, but also through other functions. For instance, Salzburg (Austria) constitutes only 6 per cent of the country’s population, but contributes 25 per cent of its net economic product.
  • Urban heritage areas often demand enhanced management, because of more and/or stricter regulations controlling and monitoring the built environment, which improves planning and design if properly executed. This, in turn, increases certainty for investors as regards the safety of their investments in the long term.
  • The historic urban landscape approach in action
  • 1. Undertake a full assessment of the city’s natural, cultural and human resources;
  • 2. Use participatory planning and stakeholder consultations to decide on conservation aims and actions;
  • 3. Assess the vulnerability of urban heritage to socio-economic pressures and impacts of climate change;
  • 4. Integrate urban heritage values and their vulnerability status into a wider framework of city development;
  • 5. Prioritize policies and actions for conservation and development, including good stewardship;
  • 6. Establish the appropriate (public-private) partnerships and local management frameworks;
  • 7. Develop mechanisms for the coordination of the various activities between different actors.
  • Stadsherstel Paramaribo was established as a foundation in 2011 by Stichting Gebouwd Erfgoed Suriname (site manager of Historic Inner City of Paramaribo, a UNESCO World Heritage site since 2002) and De Surinaamsche Bank, the largest private bank in Suriname. Stadsherstel Amsterdam supports, advices and works intensively together with this Surinam initiative, to redevelop and protect built heritage in Paramaribo, the capital city of the South American country. This public-private partnership aims to re-establish the balance between living and working in the inner city through sustainable and commercially viable restoration and management. By giving out shares, businesses and banks can invest, with a modest dividend. In 2013 the foundation will change into a limited liability company, similar to Stadsherstel Amsterdam.
  • The Play the City foundation introduces serious gaming into city-making to test rules and constraints of a given complex urban question and co-design with stakeholders. In conditions where stakes are high and conflicting, city games feed designers with information, which only can arise from the real-time interaction of agents. Play the City has been designing city games for various urban questions internationally. Play the City helps build communities, develop tools for digital urbanism and create strategies for urban development through serious gaming. One of these games was played in Istanbul, focusing on the question of how Istanbul’s vast number of newcomers can be accomodated in an already high-density metropolis under the threat of earthquakes. Participants could “play” the role of the Mayor and use their RFID transport cards to express how they’d tackle urban issues.
  • Ushahidi is a successful non-profit tech company founded in Kenya that specializes in developing free and open source software for information collection, visualization and interactive mapping. Ushahidi builds tools for democratizing information, increasing
    transparency and lowering the barriers for individuals to share their stories. One of these tools is the Inherity mobile app, an application that aims to protect cultural heritage by empowering local communities and visitors to lend a hand. Users can record, take a picture and locate on a map any tangible piece of cultural heritage they think is worthwhile. This can be as small as a piece of pottery or as large as a castle.
  • The High Line is a public park built on an historic freight rail line elevated above the streets on Manhattan’s West Side. It is owned by the City of New York, and maintained and operated by Friends of the High Line. Founded in 1999 by community residents, the Friends fought for the structure’s preservation and transformation at a time when the historic structure was under threat of demolition. In addition to overseeing maintenance, operations, and public programming for the park, Friends of the High Line works to raise the essential private funds to support more than 90 percent of the park’s annual operating budget. The more than 3 million people who visit the High Line annually have rejuvenated this former brownfield site. Photograph by John Dalton.
  • Disclaimer
  • The present document is distributed for information purposes only and aims neither to interpret nor to complement the Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape (2011).
  • The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout this brochure do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.
  • Cities are dynamic organisms. There is not a single ‘historic’ city in the world that has retained its ‘original’ character: the concept is a moving target, destined to change with society itself. To preserve the urban historic landscape, strategic and dynamic alliances need to be built between various actors in the urban scene, foremost between public authorities that manage the city and developers and entrepreneurs that operate in the city.

Historic Urban Landscape: Managing Heritage in an Urban Century

Bandarin, Francesco and Van Oers, Ron, 2012, Historic Urban Landscape: Managing Heritage in an Urban Century, John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex



  • Cities are dynamic organisms – there is not a single ‘historic’ city in the world that has retained its ‘original’ character: the concept is a moving target, destined to change with society itself.
  • Therefore, authenticity is a myth: important conservation objectives such as the safeguarding of the authenticity or integrity of the physical and social fabric of an urban complex are doomed to remain a myth, or at best, an approximation
  • The goal of conserving traditional structures in the historic city remains an aspiration that is subject to continuous compromise and adaptation.

Conservation is a utopia: collective aspiration

  • Utopias are collective representations of communities or societies, idealised conditions expressing shared value systems and common goals
  • Certain values are guardians of collective identity and memory and help to maintain a sense of continuity and tradition for aesthetic pleasure and entertainment.

Old and new

  • Historic fabric and new development can interact and mutually reinforce their role and meaning

Historic development

  • Contemporary attempts to reintegrate urban conservation principles and practices into urban development
  • Idea of urban conservation can be traced back to French Revolution time and the emergence of a new social order in Europe during the 19th century
  • A century later, a formal theory of urban conservation was developed in Europe.
  • It then took longer to define and put into practice the necessary legal and institutional measures
  • The Modern Movement gave additional impetus to many urban removal and renewal programmes worldwide
  • In the past 50 years, a thorough revision at the international level of the architectural and urban planning paradigms defined by the Modern Movement has taken place and a strong institutional and professional system has been established to support heritage conservation.
    • Toolkit: international legal instruments (e.g. 1972 World Heritage Convention)
    • Planning frameworks
  • Today this process has reached a peak.
  • Growing awareness of the challenges urban conservation faces in the coming decades, as new processes and forces of change gather momentum
  • Historic urban conservation has become a specialised field of practice but is also isolated from the management of urban processes
    • Need for an integrated view of urban management, one that harmonises preservation of what is defined as ‘historic’ and management of urban development and regeneration processes
    • The system in place is weak and powerless in the face of the types of change that characterise our contemporary world and its urban scene
    • Most important historic urban areas in Europe, Asia, Latin America and the Islamic World have lost their traditional functions and are in the process of transformation that threatens to undermine their integrity and historic, social and artistic values
  • 2011: Historic Urban Landscape adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO
    • Response to existing cultural contexts in order to identify models adapted to the value systems of different traditions
      • g. Nara Document on Authenticity in 1994
    • Define operational principles able to ensure urban conservation models that respect the values, traditions and environments of different cultural contexts
    • Recognise and position the historic city as a resource for the future
  • The basis of the modern vision of cultural heritage was developed in recognition of the value of the historic monument
  • The notion of ‘heritage’ came about during the establishment of modern nation states and the need to define their own traditions and identities
    • As a way of celebrating national epics and to create traditions (Hobsbawn, 1983)
  • The safeguarding of ‘historic monuments’ has bene at the centre of the theory and practice of conservation over the last century. This influenced the approach to historic cities that focused primarily on monuments and less on the urban fabric and public spaces.
    • Institutions:
      • Commission des Monuments Historiques, France, 1837, developed further by Prosper Mérimée
      • Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings, UK, 1877, created by William Morris
    • People: Victor Hugo
  • Public policies for the city were aimed mainly (not at cities but) at addressing the representation of the powers of the state, the modernisation of transport systems, the improvement of public spaces, the residential needs of the emerging upper and middle classes and improvement of housing conditions of the working classes
    • The historic city was viewed essentially as a place of physical and moral decay
    • Denunciation of these conditions by (famously)
      • Engels about England (1845)
      • Considérant about France (1848)
    • Gave rise to a wave of innovative and utopian experiments led by social thinkers, philanthropists and politicians; utopian responses to the crisis, which inspired important social reforms and represented a key contribution to the definition of modern urban planning principles
      • Phalansère of Fourier
      • New Lanark of Robert Owen
      • How they did not create a force of change for the historic city as powerful as that of the ‘urban engineers’ movement
    • Urban engineers movement
      • Remedy the unsanitary conditions of the working classes
      • Demolish large parts of the historic city to create better housing, open spaces and sanitation infrastructure (in place in emerging world including China)
      • Every industrialising country developed regulations and plans to clear the decayed parts of the city
        • Florence in Italy, 1865, old Piazza del Mercato Vecchio (Jewish ghetto) was replaced by the present Piazza della Repubblica, wiping out the medieval quarters and the old ghetto. This risanamento (sanitisation) subsequently served as a model for many other cities, both in Italy and elsewhere.
  • Grands Travaus, Baron Haussmann, Paris, 1850-1870
    • Not aimed at local situations but to redesign the entire city
    • Replicated in the historic centre of Rome, after 1870 when it became capital of Italy
    • Cairo, Teheran, Sofia and Istanbul, as well as many colonial capitals in the Mediterranean
    • ‘Haussmannian’ methods have never really disappeared (urban historian Spiro Kostof)
      • Traces in Robert Moses in New York, 1950s
      • Many urban renewal projects in Europe, America and other parts of the world in the post-WWII period as well as Asia currently
    • ‘Institutionalisation’ of heritage (that followed the French Revolution)
      • Was society’s response and testimony of its value in the public domain
      • Concepts of heritage mostly developed (150 years ago) by a group of theoreticians and administrators, who viewed the preservation of monuments of the past as a pillar of social and cultural development.
        • John Ruskin
        • William Morris
        • Romantic approach was a form of opposition to the ongoing modernisation and destruction brought about by the Industrial Revolution.
        • Contributed to the development of the notion of ‘common’ heritage, beyond national borders
      • Clashes between different conceptions of heritage (nostalgic and interventionist)
        • Ruskin in England, Seven Lamps of Architecture
          • Romantic & memorial
          • ‘Neither by the public, nor by those who have the care of public monuments, is the true meaning of the word restoration understood. It means the most total destruction which a building can suffer: a destruction out of which no remnants can be gathered: a destruction accompanied with false description of the thing destroyed. Do not let us deceive ourselves in this important matter; it is impossible, as impossible as to raise the dead, to restore anything that has ever been great or beautiful in architecture.’
        • Militant interventionism by Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-Le-Duc, France
          • Restoration was the reconstitution of a ‘complete’ and ‘ideal’ state of the monument, one that perhaps never existed.
          • Dictionnaire Raisonnè
          • Not only to monuments such as Notre Dame but also reconstruction of the city of Carcassonne
          • Entretiens sur l’architecture, 1863-1872
            • Fundamental book for understanding how the social and technological changes of the 19th century transformed the role of architecture and the city
          • Sought to find a method to identify the continuities of architectural development, in order to establish the basis of a practice that would allow modern society to find its own language, beyond the many revivals of the time – opened a way to a modern interpretation of architectural and urban heritage
        • Developed by Austrian architect Camillo Sitte, City Planning According to Artistic Principle. The richly illustrated book pointed out that the urban room around the experiencing man should be the leading motif of urban planning, thus turning away from the pragmatic, hygienic planning procedures of the time. Sitte emphasized the creation of an irregular urban structure, spacious plazas, enhanced by monuments and other aesthetic elements.
      • Key theoretical development: Viennese art historian, Alois Riegl
        • Ideas defined the role of heritage in contemporary society and still form the basis of our theories of heritage conservation
        • The Modern Cult of Monuments: 2 categories of value of heritage
          • Memory: ‘antiquity’ of heritage as a factor of importance, value of antiquity easily accessible to the public
          • Contemporary: ‘use value’ of monuments, a character that allows them to be differentiated from archaeology and ruins
            • ‘Art value’ and ‘Newness value’ (untouched appearance of the work of art)
          • Brought about a fundamental conceptual innovation: interpreting the conservation of monuments through a theory of values
          • Intellectual ambition: cultural tourism – the growing interest of the general public in the values of antiquity
            • Heritage is finally associated with modernity
          • The historic city as heritage
            • The historic city was recognised as a heritage system only towards the end of the 19th Only in the second half of the 20th century did the conservation of historic cities become a subject for planners and architects
            • Urban organism with its dual nature of place, containing monuments of great symbolic and artistic value, as well as a fabric of ‘minor’ architecture, the vernacular, which is much more exposed to transition and substitution. The lack of interest in, and knowledge of, this fabric, of cadastres and technical documentation, was a factor in this significant lag.
            • Development of a new discipline: city planning = parallel development of an ‘operational’ concept of the historic city
            • Foremost urban thinker of the time: Camillo Sitte (1843-1903)
              • Historic city carried with it an ‘aesthetic’ value, superior to that of the modern city – paves the way for development of urban conservation practice
              • Sitte looks at the city for the first time as an historical continuum that must be fully understood in its morphological and typological development, in order to derive rules and models for the development of the modern city.
              • Rational, model
            • Followers:
              • Werner Hegemann, Germany
              • Raymond Unwin, England
              • Gustavo Giovannoni, Italy
              • Marcel Poëte, France
              • Charles Buls, Belgium
            • Radical departure from the approach of the urban ‘hygienists’ and defines the main goal of the planner and the architect as the art of marrying functional need and beauty, a programme and analytical method termed in different parts of Europe as ‘Art Public’ or ‘Civic Art’ or ‘Art Urbain’ and as the ‘City Beautiful Movement’ in America
            • Werner Hegemann: transformed Sitte’s proposals into a methodology of planning
              • The American VitruviusThe Handbook of Civic Art
              • Universality of the principles of urban creation
              • City as a continuous and incremental collage
            • Patrick Geddes: visual and aesthetic appreciation
              • City as an organism in evolution, where physical and social components interact in a complex web of change and tradition
              • Medieval city reinterpreted by Geddes as a continuously evolving context
              • Cities in Evolution
              • Identifies, for the first time, the genius loci, spirit of the place
              • The traces, memories and collective associations of values to space are key determinants of urban transformation
              • Conservative surgery: minimising the destruction of historic buildings and urban spaces to adapt them to modern requirements
                • Edinburgh, Dublin, India, Balrampur, Lahore
              • Integrate into the new design the values (aesthetic, functional and symbolic) embodied in the city as a result of its historic transformation
            • Ideas of Geddes played a role in the creation in 1920s, the Regional Planning Association of America, led by Clarence Stein and supported by Lewis Mumford
              • Opposed land speculation in favour of socially oriented planning
              • Most influential advocacy group
              • Acknowledged later as a reaction against the anti-historicist and functionalist approach of Modernism
            • Gustavo Giovannoni: technical approach to urban conservation: urban heritage
              • The historic city could still play an important role, not linked to production and communication, but rather to living and social exchange. The historic city, in this innovative concept, is seen as part of a network of urban functions, not just as a model for the creation of new urban centres, as in Sitte’s view, but as an area where new functions compatible with traditional urban morphology can be absorbed.
              • The aesthetic function, the beauty of the historic city, is an element that further strengthens this role and establishes a hierarchy and dialogue between old and modern urban forms.
              • A very important principle established by Giovannoni was the need to conserve the built ‘environment’ of historic monuments, the urban fabric that represents the layers of time, a clear position against the ‘dismemberment’ of buildings that was – and still remains in many parts of the world – an ‘easy’
              • Giovannoni was strongly opposed to the museum-like freezing of historic centres, a common practice at the time in Italy and other countries, consisting of the isolation of the historic fabric from contemporary life, and the creation of a specialised district used for tourism purposes
            • Fracture: The Modern Movement versus the Historic City
              • Movements such as the Arts and Crafts Movement in UK and America, the German Deutscher Werkbund and the Wierner Werkstatte in Vienna had renewed the language of architecture and urban design to cope with the needs of a new industrial society
              • Vers une Architecture, Le Corbusier, 1977
                • Urged architects to detach from models and styles of the past
                • Which were detached from the needs and realities of the present
              • CIAM, 1920s-1930s: destruction of the traditional city and the creation of a new modern urban complex, based on high-density public housing, with functional and innovative housing typologies and elaborate transport infrastructure
                • The Plan of Amsterdam of Cornelis van Eesteren (leading figure of CIAM)
              • Le Corbusier’s Athens Charter, 1943
                • The historic city is a negative model. A specific section of the document deals with urban heritage, seen essentially as a set of monuments, to be respected in the name of their historic and ‘sentimental’ value, surrounded by ‘slums’ that could be demolished, with the exception of some ‘samples’ that could be preserved for their documentary value.
                • Put in place completely: Chandigarh and Brasilia
              • Rejection of the ‘layering’ process as the basis for the quality of urban spaces and the role of established social networks in shaping development patterns.
            • Athens Charter – the start of modern conservation, Athens Conference 1931
              • Importance only increased after WWII, with the adoption of 1964 Venice Charter and the growth of an international conservation movement under the aegis of UNESCO
            • New Approaches to Urban Conservation
              • First process: reaction against Modernism
                • The poor quality of modern urban spaces exposed the contrast between new developments and the historic city, where, in spite of poor housing conditions, urban spaces were far more enjoyable.
                  • Jane Jacobs in America
                • Second process: growth of an international conservation movement
                • Giancarlo De Carlo (part of Team 10): favoured citizen participation and consensus as a tool of planning and architectural design
                  • Sought to reflect the nature of the context, with its cultural, physical and historical components.
                  • Address the issue of contemporary design in the historic city in ways adapted to the realities of modern democratic societies
                  • Master Plan for the town of Urbino (new university buildings into the urban landscape)
                • Hassan Fathi, southern Egypt, 1945, vernacular architecture and informal settlement
                  • Architecture for the Poor, 1973
                  • Informal settlement and the value of traditional knowledge and techniques
                  • Recognised as a precursor of the urban management ideals that took shape at the end of Modernism.
                • John Turner, UK
                  • Many years of field experience in Latin America
                  • Self-help and self-building – rediscovering local traditions as a tool to preserve the social and physical integrity of places, while providing affordable shelter
                  • Housing is best managed by inhabitants rather than external planners
                  • The developed world has much to learn from the developing context and that the ‘freedom to build’ was the way to value local experience over the technocratic approach of traditional planning
                  • Reinforced the view that urban conservation must be participatory
                  • Establishing the preservation of the social fabric of the historic city as one of the most important goals of planning
                • Conzen, later developed by Whitehand, UK (urban geographer), palimpsest
                  • City as the outcome of an historical layering process
                  • Object: dynamics of urban space, a study of the marks left on the landscape by every phase of society, and of the forms that reflect the needs of its day
                  • Up until the 20th century, in most of the world, the relationship between townscape and ‘occupant’ society did not witness any tensions that were able to threaten the physiognomy of the towns.
                    • This allowed the townscape to be historic, even though it is still current – accumulation through time a variety of historical forms and meanings
                  • Managing the townscape as palimpsest
                    • Analytical tools based on:
                    • Understanding of the complex morphological processes (including building fabric, building types, plot patterns, blocks and street patterns)
                  • Limited practical applications
                • Saverio Muratori, Italian school of architectural typological and morphological analysis, 2950s and 1960s
                  • Typo-morphological analysis to understand the evolution of urban form
                  • Continued by Gianfranco Caniggia
                    • Tried to relate every building type to a limited number of basic spatial configurations, called Basic Elements
                  • Leonardo Benevolo, conservation plans for Bologna and many other historic cities
                    • The typo-morphological approach proved extremely effective in guiding decisions on the conservation and renewal processes of the historic fabric, used as a basis for planning and management of the building transformation process.
                  • Using perception as a tool of interpretation and design of space – integrated city planning and conservation
                    • Gordon Cullen, UK
                      • Visual impact of the city on the human mind
                      • Analysis of the individual’s memory and sensorial experiences
                      • City as a particular form of landscape
                      • Analysis involved all the elements that make up the environment: buildings, trees, nature, water, traffic, etc.
                      • Define a design methodology that extends beyond the mere ‘technical’ aspects of city making and defines an ‘art’ that is able to integrate building and environment
                      • City is not a unitary space (a townscape) – need to learn from the historical spatial layering of the historic city
                    • Kevin Lynch, USA
                      • Aim to define a systematic theory of the city
                      • The Image of the City, 1960
                      • New object of research for the planner: the mental image
                      • Lynch studies the interaction between individuals and the environment, something that belongs to all the inhabitants, and does not require the mediation of a technical expert
                      • Classification of the ‘elements of city image’, a new form of urban morphology derived from the individual’s view, in which the time dimension of the urban experience has a fundamental role.
                      • Questions some fundamental axioms of conservation – What to preserve? Why? How should change be managed?
                      • Concluded that the ability to select the elements to be preserved and to manage change is preferable to an inflexible reverence for the past. Preservation choices should be informed more by concern for the future rather than for the past.
                    • Typo-morphological: too deterministic and its application excessively mechanistic


by Shi Hong Chao, 2016, Southeastern University Doctoral Paper

  • 随着社会和经济的快速发展,传统建筑营造面临着急速的转型,传统工艺无人问津,后继乏人。笔者调研的传统大木匠师中,不少九十岁以上的老匠师还在工地上坚持,五六十岁的为主力军,四五十岁的壮年旺师凤毛麟角,四十岁以下的则极难寻觅。大量区域的传统营造匠艺已经失传,而尚保有传统营造活动的一些区域,随着老工匠们的相继老去,多地也面临传承断链的危险。因此,对传统建筑营造匠艺进好抢救性研究,仍然是建筑史学界不能放松的重要任务,是与时间赛跑的工作。
  • 但另一方面,浙江是一个经济发达的省份,持续的开发热潮,使得浙江在传统建筑遗产和传统匠师流失方面情况惨烈,抢救性研究刻不容缓。
  • 本论文从实证的角度,以浙江当代大木师傅的技艺调研为主要依据。随着时代的发展,传统建筑营造技艺也一直在发生着变化。在组织上,绝大多数匠师都己经被纳入到由个体所有制或集体所有制转变成的现代私营企业中;在加工工具上,越来越多的现代机械设备被运用在传统建筑营造中;在营造尺制上,有些匠师采用传统鲁班尺与现代公尺的双尺制,但更多匠师己经完全抛弃鲁班尺,改用公尺。但是,他们的设计和施工体系、思维体系还是传统的,现代化企业只负贵项目的管理工作,具体的营造还是依靠把作师傅按照传统方式来掌控的。如果不及时将之做出总结提炼,浙江就会和苏北、东北等地一样,传统工艺再也无人可寻,只能从实物中主观分析了。
  • 在研巧中,必然要面临区分传统与非传统的问题。论文希望尽力获取师承传递的老做法,得到较为纯粹的传统营造匠艺。但在具体工作中,笔者发现达到这一目标是非常困难的。在当下的营造中,有承继传统的做法,但也有很多做法己经做了现代化的改变,工艺、形制、材料、工具都在发生着改变。变化是必然的,是时时发生的,因此研究的对象可以称之为”当下的传统”,笔者只是尽量做到厘清哪些是传统承继下来的老工艺,哪些是经过改良的新做法,但是该个区别的边界往往是模糊的。
  • 本论文采用的一个非常重要的研究方法是进行对比研巧。论文在宏观、中观、微观3个层次上进行对比研究。宏观层面是浙江省与其他相邻省份间的对比,中观层面是浙江省内几个区划范围间的对比,微观层面是一个区划范围内不同地方、不同营造团队间的对比。宏观层面的对比凸显浙江省与周边相邻省份间的建筑互动和彼此间的渊源关系;中观层面的对比,明确浙江几大区划类型间的典型差异或相互关联;微观层面的对比则凸显浙江传统匠芝的多样性和个性化特征。
  • 兰个层面的对比在内容上都包括建筑形制、营造工艺两大类。建筑形制的对比既有可视的显性形制,又包括不可视的隐性形制。建筑的构架类型、结构方式,梁、柱、擦等大木构架的尺度与形状等都是湿性形制;而构件间的禅卯则是隐形形制的主要部分。在营造工艺的对比中,论文将对各地各营造团队间的杖杆、讨照法等方面进行细致的挖掘。


  • 传统建筑木作工种主要分大木作和小木作,相应的工匠称为大木匠和小木匠。在民间,大木匠和小木匠的区分往往并非那么清楚,很多工匠都是大木、小木兼做,常根据需要灵活变化,甚至还包括做家具的细木。笔者采访的很多工匠,跟着师傅学好大木后,找不到活干,就改为做家具,后来文物建筑修镶的活越来越多,又重新回到大木行当里来。
  • 传统的营造都是由一名把作师傅带领几位到十几位工匠组成小营造团队接活做。团队成员包括:把作师傅、一般的大木师傅、半作师傅、徒弟和蛮工等五个级别。过去学徒的规矩是跟着师傅学3年,这3年是没有工钱的。H年过后再给师傅做3年,这3年有工钱,但工钱比较低。做完六年后,不管选择自己做,还是继续跟着师傅做,都可W拿到正常的工钱了。营造团队中的半作师傅就是3年学徒期己满,还要跟师傅做3年的人。徒弟则是还在3年学徒期的人。蛮工则是做小工、杂活的人。
  • 笔者调研的匠师,并非都学完了H年,学徒3年后还拿很少工钱跟着师傅做3年的人就更是寥寥无几了因此在现在的营造团队中,只有把作师傅、一般大木匠师和蛮工3个层次的匠师,半作师傅和徒弟几乎没有了。
  • 这种由把作师傅带上几名到十几名工匠接活做的小营造团队在浙江还存在,但数量己经越来越少,工程一般都在把作师傅的家乡方圆不远的地方,因技术好、口碑好,而得到活干。所接任务大多是民间集资的庙宇、祠堂等新建或修簿。温州瑞安的徐启礼师傅、临海的徐文彪师傅都采用这种模式。跟着把作师傅做的也都是本乡本王的匠师,大家长期合作,配合默契。
  • 浙江多数营造队伍都是由正规古建筑公司管理的,按规模有两种类型。一种是小型公司
  • 公司最为重视把作师傅,一般都希望与好的把作师傅保持稳定的合作关系。持别是现在工匠越来越少,懂行的把作师傅更是少之又少。
  • 浙江目前还出现了一种行业协会的组织方式。过去在外做工的同乡匠师们会成立营造行会,比如1918年在上海成立的”浙宁水木公所”就是宁波籍的工匠们建立起来的同乡团队。这些同乡团队本着”亲帮亲,邻帮邻”的互助精神。但这种行会在解放后基本被取消了。解放后到改革开放前,匠师们不能独立做工,基本都得加入集体组织的合作社。当前,浙江成立的比较好的协会是永嘉县古建筑协会,送是一个民间组织。工匠师傅每年向协会交纳200元的会费,协会介绍工程给旺师。同时,协会组织培训,并有专职管理人员,负责项目的质量管理、检查等工作。协会同样重视带班师傅,目前共有带班师傅七八个。协会作为一个新事物,容易被年轻一些的匠师所接受,目前协会中年龄最大的匠师62岁,最年轻的30几岁。参加协会的带班师傅全都是五十多岁的。



  • 近年来,华南理工大学的程建军教授的《岭南古代大式殿堂建筑构架研究》涉及到粤北地区几处殿堂的研究,大范围的研究工作尚未展开。本文研究的内容在建筑类型上主要包括学宫、会馆、寺院、祠堂、衙署、大型民居、园林中的主要建筑以及建筑群中的次要建筑,是与人民生活密切相关的一类建筑。由于粤北地区位置的特殊性,传统建筑大量而广泛的存在于乡土社会中,其建筑形制、等级以及设计水平更容易受到地域、功能、习俗、业主、匠师等不同主客观因素影响制约。
  • 于粤北传统建筑的广泛性、多样性,建筑大木构架中往往保存较多的原生性的特点,将会更直接的反应出早期岭南木构架的传承关系,粤北地处赣粤古道,尤其南雄是古代进入广东的必经之道,木构架设计法则将体现起承转合的影响力。粤北地区传统建筑在建筑构架的表现上为更多的灵活性、多样性、复杂性与开放性,对其发展演变的脉络的梳理、设计规律的总结与设计方法的探索将有助于对岭南殿堂建筑大木构架的研究,同时也是岭南传统建筑研究的有益补充。
  • 以梁思成、刘敦桢等为代表的第一代建筑史学家就对中国古代建筑大木构架进行了系统深入的研究,以二人为主要研究者的营造学社展开调查、测绘,研究了大量古建筑实例,发表数十份科学调查报告和图纸,为大木构架研究积累了详实可靠的例证;梁思成细致研究了《清工程做法》、《营造法式》两部古代典籍,为后人研究大木构架奠定了坚实基础。先后完成的著作主要有《清式营造则例》(1934 年)、《营造法式注释》(卷上)(1980 年)、《中国古代建筑史》(刘敦桢 1980 年)、《中国古代木结构建筑技术(战国—北宋)》(陈明达 1990 年)、《中国建筑类型与结构》(刘致平 2000 年)、《应县木塔》(陈明达 2001 年)、《中国住宅概说》(刘敦桢 2004 年)、《中国建筑史》(梁思成 2011 年)等。


  • 一批古建筑学者从各自不同角度对中国古建筑大木构架进行详细、深入研究,取得一批丰硕的研究成果,其中影响力较大的有:陈明达先生《营造法式大木作制度研究》一书,结合现在保存实例对《营造法式》中规定的大木作制度进行详细阐释;杨鸿勋先生《建筑考古学论文集》,将考古学引入古建筑研究领域中;潘谷西先生的文章《营造法式初探》(一、二、三、四)中提出《营造法式》与江南建筑有着密切关系,对法式中殿堂、厅堂、余屋的用料、构造、建筑式样的区别进行详细阐释;并将古代建筑的长、宽、高从大木制度的角度剖析为建筑类别、正面间数、间广、檐柱高度、屋深、屋顶样式、铺座、材等八个方面,化繁为简,为古建筑构架研究提供方向性的指引。徐伯安先生的文章《营造法式斗栱形制解疑探微》、结合实例对大木构架中斗栱形制、布局原则进行清晰、详尽的解释;张十庆先生专著《中日古代建筑大木技术的源流与变迁》、《营造法式变造用材制度探析》(一、二)、《营造法式研究札记—论以中为法的模数构成》、《营造法式的技术源流与江南建筑的关联探析》、《营造法式栱长构成及其意义解析》、《古代建筑的尺度构成探析》、《从建构思维看古代建筑结构的类型与演化》等文章中立足于江南地区从建筑学、文化学、社会学、类型学、宗教学等多学科、多角度对《营造法式》中大木做法从源流、尺度、用材、技术等角度进行分析;《中国江南禅宗寺院建筑》文中对木构架有较为深刻的认识,研究的侧重点放在江南地区传统建筑,大量的案例研究,文中可借鉴的研究方法较多。潘谷西、何建中著《<营造法式>解读》,作者充分尊重原书的基本理论,用现代的语言及图示对《营造法式》进行解析,见解独到、分析精确、一语中的。
  • 蔡军、张健著《<工程做法则例>中大木设计体系》,将日本建筑史学领域的研究方法和思路,来对中国传统建筑进行解读。在整理、研究《工程做法则例》中古典建筑设计的模数化体系时,运用日本的“木割”理论,能够图表化、形象化地清晰表达古典建筑书籍中繁杂的文字,系统化解读其设计技法。郭华瑜《明代官式建筑大木作》,对大量明代官式建筑遗构进行了考察、测绘,并对比分析了明代官式做法与宋、元、清各代官式建筑做法的异同之处,对明代大木构架的传承和发展进行了分析与总结,大木构架的类型有殿堂结构形式、厅堂结构形式、柱梁结构形式、楼阁结构形式;并分析了大木构架的平面构成、剖面、立面构成,进而分析了屋顶的做法、斗栱的类型等。


  • 了解古代建筑制度和技术,主要从梁思成、刘敦桢等《<营造法式>注释》(梁思成)、《清式营造则例》(梁思成)、《营造法原》(清 姚承祖)等历代建筑技术专书,1983 年文化部文物保护护科研究所主编的《中国古建筑修缮技术》是对传统古建修建做出了详细的指导;1991 年马炳坚先生的《中国古建筑木作营造技术》着眼点在于对于北京官式做法及北方地方传统建筑做法,从宏观的角度,较为通俗详尽。2001 年出版的《中国古代建筑史》(第一~五卷),以历史时间为线索,分时期对于中国传统建做出较为详尽的梳理,是中国古建筑技术宏观发展史的巨著;2003 年潘谷西先生主编的《中国建筑史》等,都涉及传统建筑的营造技艺。
  • 井庆升《清式大木作操作工艺》重在做法上,详细记录了大木的构件尺度,及安装方法,记录了我国清代的许多大木作操作工艺。刘大可《中国古建筑瓦石营法》以明、清官式建筑的做法为主线,主要介绍了古建筑土作、瓦作和石作的传统营造方法和法式,包括地基、台基、墙体、屋顶及地面等部位的样式变化、构造关系、比例尺度、规矩做法以及建筑材料等方面的知识。
  • 近年来,各建筑高校建筑学专业博士生也进行了传统建筑木构架营造技艺方面的研究。乔迅翔的《宋代建筑营造技术基础研究》,是对于宋代传统建筑营造技术的问题研究。其认为建筑的基本要素包括工和料。工,即劳动者,包括工匠和役夫;料,即劳动对象;在整个官方营造体系中,由营造机构来进行统辖管理。文中阐述了宋代营造机构的发展沿革及其构成,并且对于宋代工匠、役夫的成分、地位等展开讨论,在建筑的工程管理中如何发挥营造团队的作用,并研究相应的管理运作程序和和管理制度,关注营造工序中的每一个环节,从设计、选址、备工备料、到施工营建,力求还原当时营造的轮廓,对于测量、起重与运输等工程数学的具体技术问题也有展开讨论。后面对于《营造法式》中的功限、料例等条文进行了着重探讨。
  • 中国艺术研究院马全宝博士的《江南木构架营造技艺比较研究》,文中讨论了江南木构作为我国传统建筑体系中的重要组成部分,以木材为主要结构材料的建筑体系,传统建筑的营造技艺经过不断发展、完善,成为一个完整科学的技术体系,是东方传统营造水平的代表。江南殿庭构架规模较大,面宽有二至九间,进深达六至十二界,规模形式较高。利用比较研究的方法,通过比较江南周边地区以及北方和中原地区的传统木构架,对江南木构架建筑的历史发展变化进行了探讨,指出作为我国南方重要的营造体系的江南木构架,代表了当时先进的建筑技术水平和技术特征,体现出及江南地区木构营造技艺的地域多样性。
  • 杂志期刊文章有的龙非了的《论中国古建筑之系统及营造工程》、孙大章的《民居建筑的插梁架浅论》、张十庆的《古代建筑的尺度构成探析(一、二、三)》、李浈《官尺·营造尺·鲁班尺—古代建筑实践中用尺制度初探》、张玉瑜的《大木怕安—传统大木作上架技艺研究》、王世仁《明清时期的民间木构建筑技术》等都涉及到了传统建筑营造技术与过程的相关知识。


  • 一直以来,华南理工大学、东南大学、华侨大学等高校和台湾地区的很多专家学者都倾注大量的心血对岭南地区传统建筑构架与设计方法孜孜以求的进行探索研究,也取得了丰硕的成果。上个世纪 40 年代以后,以华南理工大学建筑学院的龙庆忠教授为代表的一批学者教授,数十年来对许多岭南重要的古建筑进行了大量的测绘和研究工作,发表多篇学术价值很高的论文和专著。如龙庆忠先生的“中国古建筑在结构上的伟大成就”、“南海神庙”、“瑰玮奇特、天南奇观的容县古经略台—真武阁”等系列论文,对岭南古建筑的构架和设计方法上作了考据和论证;陆元鼎、魏彦均教授的《广东民居》对广东民居及祠堂的布局、形制及构架和装饰进行了系统的研究论述;邓其生教授对岭南园林进行详细勘察,对岭南园林的布局格体、设计手法以及园林建筑的形体、体量进行深入探讨研究;吴庆洲教授的“粤西古建筑瑰宝”、“肇庆梅庵”和“德庆悦城龙母庙”的研究对岭南早期的大木式建筑的形制做了详尽的分析;程建军教授多年来一直对岭南古建筑的大木构架进行大量细致的研究,并发表了多篇论文和专著,如“南海神庙大殿复原研究”、“广州光孝寺大雄宝殿大木构架研究”、“广府式殿堂大木结构技术研究”、 “粤东福佬系大木式构架研究”、 “压白尺法初探”和《岭南古代大式殿堂建筑构架研究》对岭南大式殿堂建筑构架和设计方法进行了系统性的总结,提出很多权威的见解等。
  • 李哲扬老师致力于粤东传统建筑大木构架的研究和学习,其论文《潮汕传统建筑大木构架研究》、《潮汕传统大木构架建构方式考察》对粤东潮汕传统建筑的大木构架历史形态、发展规律和建构方式进行了深入挖掘,阐述了潮汕传统建筑体系是广义闽南建筑系统中的一个子系统,同时具有潮汕地区的自身自然地理及发展历史特点,它也是一个相当独立的、具有鲜明个性的区域建筑体系。该文就是针对潮汕传统建筑体系中大木构架的形态式样、构成尺度、设计匠法等多方面进行深入分析研究的一篇论文。同属岭南系统中的一部分,该论文对于本文的写作有很大的参考价值。论文研究的对象包括传统建筑实体与工匠技艺,作者进行了充分的前期调研工作,并通过匠师访谈、摄影、测绘等方式,获得了大量的第一手资料,首次披露建筑“水布”做法等内容,论文中,对影响潮汕地区传统建筑体系产生与发展的历史、地理因素进行了综合的分析,并简要地回顾了该区传统建筑的发展历史。对部分潮汕传统建筑名词进行了收集、整理、图解等的工作。其中选取了六个突出的殿堂实例,作为整体构架设计的分析对象,着重研究分析了它们的尺度构成设计特点;其余的众多实例则为研究该区传统大木构架的时代特征提供了实物支持。文中对于潮汕大木构架设计法的探讨,主要着力于尺度、用尺、尺法等的探讨,还对潮汕传统建筑中所蕴涵沉淀的古制源流进行了考证分析。
  • 东南大学张玉瑜博士的论文《实践中的营造智慧—福建传统大木匠师技艺抢救性研究》,致力于福建传统营造技艺的抢救性研究,通过现场调研查访,对大木构架设计的主导者—匠师进行系统研究,对福建地区传统建造体系中的木匠技术和大木作技术进行记录、解构与分析研究,另外也对木作雕刻、油作、漆作等进行分析。来揭示左右大木构架设计过程中派系师承、设计尺法、风俗禁忌等影响因素,开拓了大木构架研究的新思路。
  • 台湾著名学者李乾朗先生对台湾传统建筑匠艺进行研究整理,对台湾地区传统建筑设计手法进行系统总结。认为对于中国传统建筑营造而言,中国建筑具有顽强的延续性;继承多于发展;中国建筑具有强烈的普遍性;虽地方与官式、地方之间存有差异,但汉地建筑同属一个建筑文化和技术体系;营造技术体系是实践基础上的操作系统,有其特定规律,如简明性、方便性、习惯性等。


  • 粤北地区木构架目前的研究少有问津。近年来,程建军教授主持了粤北地区几处学宫的修缮项目,并多次带领博硕研究生深入粤北地区,对古建筑考察研究。
  • 程建军《岭南古代大式殿堂建筑构架研究》该文讲述了岭南古代建筑的地理与历史文化背景,岭南大式殿堂建筑的概念与类型,岭南大式殿堂建筑木构架形式分析,岭南大式殿堂建筑木构架形式再分析,广府大式殿堂建筑木构架的时代特征与加工工艺,岭南大式殿堂建筑木构架中的古制,粤东福佬系大式殿堂大木构架名词与设计方法,岭南古建筑与日本古建筑的关系。文中涉及到粤北地区的韶州府学宫大成殿,并对其进行了简要分析。
  • 民居系列丛书《广东民居》中对粤北地区民居及祠堂的木构架进行了部分研究。广东工业大学的朱雪梅教授《粤北地区传统村落形态和建筑文化研究》关于粤北地区的传统民居构架类型有部分研究,还有一些学者对于粤北的构架有零星的研究工作,更大范围的研究工作尚未展开。
  • 岭南建筑经典丛书岭南古村落系列《走进古村落》粤北卷,从村落聚居入手,谈及村落文化在地域上表现出的水乡文化、山居文化、海洋文化的特点,又因移民南迁及向海外拓展的缘故,同时表现出移民文化和侨乡文化等多样性特征,内容涉及到粤北的12 个古村落,主要从文化、装饰角度来讨论民风、民俗,关于传统建筑营造技术,木构架的相关理论几乎没有提及。


  • 研究中国传统的木构技术,推而广之到国际范围,那么主要有关联的还是东亚地区,日本、韩国、朝鲜等地区,尤其是日本,在文化上与中国具有同源性,从唐代吸收借鉴中国的传统技术,而后发展自成体系,研究成果比较丰富。
  • “他山之石,可以攻玉”,中国和日本两国建筑文化之间有特定的源流关系,日本建筑界对于大木构架研究的方法、成果值得我们借鉴、学习。日本学者对于建筑理论的研究不仅表现在总体上的全面广泛,而且尤其在建筑细部上,深入而具体。日本建筑史研究作为一门独立的学问,已经取得了很多成果,研究方法也渐趋成熟。浅野清通过遗构修理所作的考古实证性研究,著作《唐招提寺金堂复原考》、《法隆寺建筑综观》、《奈良时代建筑の研究》、《东大寺华法堂的现状及其复原的考察》;关口欣也以遗构为主要研究对象,对所有现存的中世禅宗寺院,从平面、构架、柱高、斗栱、装饰细部等诸方面展开研究,力图寻求其形制,构成及其发展演变的规律,汇编成专集《禅宗建筑的研究》等。关野贞先生试图将一个新的科学方法应用于建筑考古学研究上,提出判定建筑年代时可以根据营造尺的性质进行尺度判断,并在其广泛应用于后期日本建筑史的研究上。
  • 学者竹岛卓一的《营造法式の研究》全书共三卷。对于总制、泥作、砖作、彩画作、窑作等进行了系统的体系研究。并将《营造法式》各卷均译成日文。河田克博等重点研究了日本近世建筑书中唐样建筑的设计技法。
  • 日本铃木充教授对于中国的《营造法原》进行了分类研究,分别从解题与台基、平房楼房、提栈、厅堂总论、厅堂及其材料等五个部分展开讨论,是对《营造法原》比较系统的研究,也为更多日本学者了解江南营造做法提供资料。
  • 欧美。由于中西方文化背景差异较大,欧美对于中国古典建筑的研究较少,以翻译介绍为主,少有专题研究。Else Glahn 著《Chinese Building Standards in the 12th Century》(1981)将《营造法式》译为英文,增加了《营造法式》的国际知名度,该书以翻译为主,注解为辅,少有研究。关于中国古典建筑研究有 Nancy Shatzman Steinhardt 的专著《Liao Architecture》和期刊论文 The Tang Architectural Icon and the Politics of Chinese Architectural History(2004)。